GRAND will be modular and built in stages.

Between 2022 and 2026, the 300-antenna pathfinder, GRANDProto300, will validate the GRAND detection principle, test and optimize the detection units design, the autonomous trigger and data transfer strategies. GP300 will also conduct an ambitious science program on cosmic rays between 10 16.5-18 eV.


In addition, a set-up with 10 antennas, called GRAND@Auger, is planned to be deployed in 2023 at the site of the Auger Observatory (Argentina) for cross-calibration and validation by comparison with this well-established. Finally, GRAND@Nançay, a set-up of 4 GRAND units was installed in 2022 at the Nançay Radio-observatory (France) as a test bench for detector and trigger optimization.


10, 000 detection units of the finalized design will be produced and deployed in 2028 to create GRAND10k, the first GRAND sub- array. This array will serve to test challenges related to large-scale arrays, such as communication or data transfer/storage. GRAND10k will have the sensitivity to detect the first EeV neutrinos.


In the 2030s, once this first sub-array has been demonstrated to operate successfully, its design will be frozen. Industrial companies will be prospected to replicate this sub-array and take care of the mass-production and deployment of the units with predefined specifications in terms of reliability, costs etc. The design of each subarray may be adapted, depending on location and topography, or to address specific science cases.

Example of GRAND10k sub-array locations around the world